The recent introduction of 3D bioprinting technology is a game-changer in the field of healthcare. It is a fast-developing field that has been applied to a plethora of biomedical purposes. It is distinct from conventional 3D printing which involves the use of bioinks composed of cells and other biomaterials to create complex functioning tissues. As a result, it is a complex process that includes computational modeling, bioink preparation, deposition, and print-out maturation. Bioprinting also incorporates a variety of other factors, including the kind of printer used and the type of bioink used throughout the development process. It is widely utilized in the production of artificial three-dimensional tissue and organs, as well as stents for tissue engineering.

In contrast to conventional techniques of seeding following stent production, 3D bioprinting (3D BP) technology deposits a combination of cells and a biological material directly onto the stent model and mixes cells into the stent model during the manufacturing process. It is a biological overlapping process of 3D layers in which a combination of high-density live cells and bioink is printed out by a bioprinter under computer supervision.

By designing anatomically shaped substrates with tissue-like complexity, 3D BP, allows for the creation of precisely controlled  tissue constructs. Patient-derived stem cells, such as induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) or mesenchymal stem cells, may be used to generate personalized disease models. To produce the required tissue construct, a variety of materials, techniques, and cells may be utilized, depending on the application. Listed below are some recent innovations in 3D Bioprinting that will help you to understand development in this field.

Complex Structure printed at our lab using Trivima 3D Bioprinter. 15 layer structure with complicated layering and strut formation.

Recent Advances in 3D Bioprinting Industry

1. Advanced Skin Cell Models Using the VitroGel® System 

    A recent innovation by “The Well Bioscience on Vitrogel®” is a user-friendly xenofree hydrogel used for 3D cell culture. This helps to create ECM in less than 20 minutes. Ready-to-use gel and combine the cells with the medium and incubate. The majority of procedures may be completed in less than 20 minutes. There will be no dry ice used in the transportation process; this is one of the advantages of this gel. The hydrogel is transparent and works with a variety of imaging techniques.

    Consistency between batches was ensured via the production process and quality monitoring. We can select the desired stiffness of the hydrogel from a broad range to match your requirements. VitroGel is compatible with a wide variety of cell activities and is safe for in vivo applications fig 1. VitroGel is a thermostable gel that is simple to pipette. It is excellent for automation and screening with a high content level.

    As simple as it is to grow cells in three dimensions or two dimensions with VitroGel®, it is even simpler to harvest cells from the hydrogel system using the VitroGel® Cell Recovery Solution. This gel has a neutral pH with an enzyme-free solution, which operates at a 37°C working temperature. Cells grown in 3D or 2D covering VitroGel® may be collected in 10-20 minutes with a simple rocking and incubation procedure while retaining excellent cell viability.

    Fig 1 – Advantages of Vitrogel®

    2. Machine learning in 3D Bioprinting: emphasizing big data development and digital twins

      Recently, the use of machine learning (ML) in bioprinting has drawn significant interest. Although more has been published about the advantages and possibilities of machine learning, a clear picture of how machine learning will influence the future of three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting remains missing. It is suggested here that two critical missing connections, Big Data and the Digital Twin, are necessary to define a future vision of 3D bioprinting. The most critical and critical challenges are developing training databases from Big Data curation and creating digital twins of human organs with cellular precision and characteristics. With the addition of these missing connections, it is hoped that future 3D bioprinting would become increasingly digital and in silico, ultimately striking a balance between virtual and physical trials for the most effective use of bioprinting resources. Additionally, the virtual component of bioprinting and biofabrication, namely digital bioprinting, will become a new growth area for the healthcare industry and information technology in the future.

      3. Biomaterials and 3D Bioprinting Strategies to Model Glioblastoma and the Blood-Brain Barrier

        Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and serious malignancy of the central nervous system. The brain’s unique biochemical and structural characteristics result in universal recurrence and poor prognosis. In vitro 3D models of GBM and Blood-brain barrier (BBB) utilizing patient- or healthy-individual-derived cells and biomaterials via 3D bioprinting technologies may replicate key physiological and pathological characteristics of GBM and BBB since traditional models fail to predict treatment effectiveness in GBM. 3D-bioprinted structures may be used as screening or drug delivery platforms to investigate the cellular and cell-extracellular matrix interactions in a species-matched, high-throughput, and repeatable way. 3D-bioprinted GBM and BBB models are presented in this research, with details on GBM and BBB microenvironmental compositions, appropriate biomaterials to imitate natural tissues, and bioprinting methods for model creation were studied. Overall, 3D-bioprinted GBM and BBB models are promising systems and biomimetic alternatives to traditional models for more reliable mechanistic studies and preclinical drug screenings, which could help to speed up GBM drug development.

        Learn More About Biomaterials in Module 4 of our Online Course in 3D Bioprinting

        | Learn About the diverse biomaterials used in 3D Bioprinting, their applications based on cell types, considerations for cross linking and scaffold design |

        4. Photo-Crosslinkable Hydrogels for Bone and Cartilage 3D Bioprinting

        Cylindrical bioprint done using Trivima 3D Bioprinter’s Photocrosslinking module at Central Leather Research Institute, Chennai.

          Considering great control over the geometry and micro architectures of the scaffolds, three-dimensional 3D bioprinting has emerged as a potential method for bone manufacturing. The development of 3D constructions for bone and cartilage defect restoration has thus been dependent on bioprinting ink for bone and cartilage engineering. Building 3D bone and/or cartilage scaffolds requires a delicate balance of cellular survival, drug or cytokine function, and mechanical integrity. One of the most promising materials in tissue engineering is a photo-cross-linkable hydrogel, which can react to light and cause structural or morphological changes. The photo-cross-linkable hydrogel may fulfill different criteria of bone and cartilage scaffolds due to its biocompatibility, ease of manufacturing, and controlled mechanical and degrading characteristics, making it an excellent bio-ink for 3D bioprinting. 3D bioprinting is a fast-developing area of bone engineering research. With the advancement of new technology and biomaterials, that this method may be the key to improving the quality of life for patients with bone or cartilage abnormalities.

            Recent  3D bioprinting research and the present state of the art are all addressed in this article. Over the last decade, there has been a lot of study on 3D bioprinting, which shows that technology has a lot of potential in tissue engineering. More study on bioink creation and 3D bioprinting methods is needed, however, to address difficulties including vascularization, biomanufacturing concerns, and unsuitable characteristics. Multimaterial hydrogels, more precise bioprinting technologies, and integrating various printing processes are some of the most significant topics that may assist improve bioprinting’s uses in tissue engineering. A few bioprinting items have already been brought to the market and are now available for purchase. Given the industry’s rapid growth in recent years, more bioprinting goods will inevitably become available on the market to assist patients suffering from a variety of illnesses, and 3D bioprinting will remain a powerful manufacturing technique. There are currently more than 100 bioprinting businesses operating across the world, each offering equipment, materials, services, and applications for tissue and organ engineering, which is a rapidly growing industry. Experts believe, however, that more complex, fully functioning human organs for high-need transplants are still 10 to 15 years away.


            Ms. Prachi Khamkar

            Ms. Prachi is a scientific content writer for Next Big Innovation Labs®.She also serves as Project head in Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Operations at CiREE, Pune. Her area of interest Pharmaceutical 3D Printing and 3D Bioprinting. Received numerous awards for Scientific and Professional bodies at National and International Platforms for 3D Printng in Healthcare sector. She has published several review articles and book chapters based on 3D Printing Technology in Pharmaceutical for International Publication.

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